عنوان مقاله [English]
The Abbasid Caliphate is considered one of the most important governing systems in the Islamic world. Many administrative and political institutions of Islamic civilization were formed during this caliphate, although many of these institutions were derived from the structures of pre-Islamic Iran. The institution of the judiciary was one of the most important administrative structures of this caliphate, that despite its previous existence in Islamic governments, it eventually evolved in the hands of the Abbasids. Various military and social structures served the judiciary of the Abbasid Caliphate, the most important of which were Hasabeh, Shorteh, and Divan-e-Mazalem (the Court of Injustice). The present study seeks to examine the position of the mentioned military and social institutions in the judicial structure of the Abbasid Caliphate and to illuminate the position of these military positions and social structures in the judicial system of the Abbasid Caliphate. The findings of the research indicate that these positions were an important part of the judicial structure of that period. Hasabeh was in charge of economic, social, and religious affairs, and this organization acted in direct connection with "Amr-be-Maroof va Nahy-e-Monkar" (enjoining the good and forbidding the evil). Shortehs (judicial officers) were the executors of judicial rulings and were considered the executive arm of the judiciary. Finally, the Court of Injustice, which was an important part of the judiciary of the Abbasid Caliphate and was directly run by the caliph himself, also played an important role in people's direct access to the caliphs when they dealt with people's complaints about the actions of the governors, commanders, and notable statesmen.